Technical Articles

The Power of Moving-Average Digital Filters
by Bonnie C. Baker, Microchip Technology Inc.Often, analogue-to-digital converter users employ averaging algorithms with their controller or processor on the output of several samples from the converter. A converted signal can be smoothed by using this technique (see Figure 1), and the effective resolution can be improved by reducing system noise.Smoothing converted dataThe smoothing effect on the converted data is implemented by acquiring multiple signals at a constant sample rate, averaging a predetermined group or number of the samples, and ... more
Taking the Strain out of Selecting Amplifiers for Gauge Applications
Kevin Tretter,Microchip Technology Inc.The world of data acquisition is extremely diverse, encompassing measurements of temperature, pressure, humidity, strain and a variety of other physical phenomenon. In addition, these measurements may be required under harsh conditions, such as extreme temperatures, centrifugal forces and electrically noisy environments. System designers must be diligent in not only selecting the correct sensor for their application, but also in designing appropriate signal conditioning to deal with these issues. This article will focus on the signal conditioning ... more
Win a Microchip MPLAB REAL ICE Emulation System!
South-East European Industrial Market Magazine is offering readers the chance to win a Microchip MPLAB REAL ICE emulation system. This tool supports the development of applications that use Microchip’s PIC microcontrollers and dsPIC Digital Signal Controllers (DSCs). The MPLAB REAL ICE offers next-generation emulation support, including faster memory interfacing and longer distance, higher speed target connections.The new emulation system is fully integrated into the free MPLAB Integrated Development Environment (IDE) used for writing code, building projects, testing, verification and programming. ... more
Bridging the Rails
Gaurang Kavaiya,Microchip Technology Inc.From the early days, the ‘mantra’ for the semiconductor industry has been “Smaller, Better, Faster and Cheaper”. The current Pocket PCs are more powerful than the first computer, which required a separate building. The way this goal has been achieved, so far, is to reduce the size of the individual transistor used to create the semiconductor device. This has an interesting side effect. As the transistor gets smaller, the operating voltage gets lower. The 5V power-supply rail ... more
Intelligent Power-Supply Design
Lucio Di Jasio, Microchip Technology Inc.Switch-Mode Power Supplies (SMPS) are traditionally implemented using a basic analogue control loop. Recently, advances in Digital Signal Controllers (DSCs) have enabled designs where full digital control schemes begin to become practical and economical. Still, early adopters of digital technology are expected to be at the high-end of the applications spectrum, where the benefits of full digital control are the most immediate. However, there are a large number of applications that can greatly benefit from ... more
8-bit MCUs Challenge the 4-bit Package and 32-bit Power
Lucio Di Jasio,Microchip Technology Inc.One of the basic rules of evolution is that adaptation is the key to survival and perhaps no other technology demonstrates this as well as the 8-bit microcontroller (MCU). Throughout its thirty-year history, the 8-bit MCU has undergone continual adaptation and, even today, is colonising slots which would once have been the exclusive territory of the more powerful 32-bit MCU or the smaller 4-bit MCU.Thirty years of 8-bit MCUsThe first single-chip 8-bit microprocessor was released by ... more
Techniques for measuring with non-linear sensors
Bonnie C. Baker, Microchip Technology Inc.A sensor with a non-linear output need not be difficult to deal with if all that is needed is coverage of a small portion of the output range. In such a case, it is possible to set up a simple, piecewise linearisation algorithm in a microcontroller or microprocessor. If a wider part of the output range is required, analogue linearisation circuits can be used. For example, a resistor in series or parallel with a (non-linear) ... more
Win a Microchip PICSTART Plus Programmer!!
Microchip are offering readers of South East Industrial Market the chance to win a PICSTART Plus Programmer! The latest version of Microchip’s popular microcontroller programmer kit includes the PICC Lite ANSI-C Compiler for use with the PIC16F84A Flash microcontroller. The PICSTART Plus supports all existing Microchip 8-bit OTP and Flash MCUs including the popular PIC12CXXX, PIC16cXX and PIC17CXX devices.Additionally, this kit includes a sample PIC16F84A MCU - an 18-pin 300 mil DIP package RISC controller with 68 bytes of RAM, ... more
A digital solution to analogue oscillator problems
Bonnie C. Baker, Microchip Technology Inc.A designer presented with the task of producing a 100Hz sine-wave signal will probably consult analogue cookbooks and/or the web for a quick and suitable solution. This can be a good way to start, but it ignores another, potentially powerful, solution. Designers are always under pressure to produce their designs quickly, but before leaping to use an analogue circuit, it may be beneficial to consider using a digital engine, such as a microcontroller or microprocessor.A ... more
8-Bit Microcontrollers Extend their Reach
Steve Sanghi, Chairman of the Board, CEO and President Microchip Technology Inc.The Sophisticated ConsumerAccording to one study, the typical consumer touches almost 100 embedded microcontrollers (MCUs) every day before noon. Recent surveys have also shown that the mobile phone is the device that most consumers feel that they could least afford to lose. Thanks to mobile computing and communications, the world is smaller, response times are shorter and even the most non-technical person is aware of the presence of computers ... more
Wind Energy: Technologies and Trends in Wind Power Plants Development
The development of technologically and cost effective solutions for the wind energy conversion into electrical energy has been one of the greatest technical challenges in the last decades. The idea of using wind energy for the generation of electricity could rightly be regarded as the logical continuation of its utilization for centuries as the driving power for various types of equipment, among which wind mills undoubtedly have greatest popularity. Despite the relatively short history of wind plants . the first ... more
Integrating Analogue Devices Efficiently Into Digital Designs
George Paparrizos, Microchip TechnologyThe increasing complexity of designs over the last decade has produced many new types of digital devices - such as FPGAs, DSPs, FRAMs, and Flash microcontrollers. At the same time, requirements for more memory, intelligence and functionality, and the replacement of older discrete and mechanical components, have significantly increased the digital content of these systems. These developments have also created a demand for a growing range of high-performance analogue components, which must be incorporated into systems in ... more
Desulphurization shall be implemented at the Maritsa TPP 2 Units 5 and 6
The stages of its implementation are being presently clarified.The selection of a main contractor and subcontractors is forthcoming.Amelia StoimenovaA green light was given in December 2004 for the implementation of a project for the construction of desulphurization installations at Units 5 and 6 of the largest thermal power plant in Bulgaria, Maritsa East 2, according to information from the Bulgarian Ministry of Energy and Energy Resources (MEER). The objective of the project implementation is the reduction of the generated sulphur ... more
Omron’s implementation in crane construction
One of the leading companies in the automation field, OMRON can provide complete technical equipment and software for crane construction. This applies particularly for high tonnage cranes with demanding requirements for the electric equipment. In Bulgaria, the teams of the “GEMAMEX” and “KRANOSTROENE ENGINEERING” companies have had successful experience in this area. Three joint projects for high tonnage cranes (over 50 t.) with a frequency control of the motion and hoists and PLC control have been accomplished.A distinguishing characteristic of ... more
Using temperature sensors in electronic equipment
George Paparrizos, Microchip TechnologyElectronics designers have made use of temperature sensors for many years, in applications ranging from shutting down the system during an over-temperature condition, to providing thermal calibration in high-accuracy designs and displaying temperature data. In the past decade, the need for higher performance and more-compact systems has driven the wide adoption of silicon-based thermal sensors in many different types of design.The growing use of high-performance digital devices, such as CPUs and ASICs, has resulted in systems that ... more

LATEST issue 2/2020

issue 2-2020


South Korean automotive manufacturer Kyungshin starts construction of new factory in Serbia

South Korean automotive manufacturer Kyungshin starts construction of new factory in Serbia

In Smederevska Palanka, the Kyungshin Cable plant will produce components for high-tech electric car batteries, as well as parts for traditional cars ... more
EBRD launches research programme for SMEs in 6 European countries

EBRD launches research programme for SMEs in 6 European countries

The new programme is designed to create free, publicly available research reports to overcome information barriers that obstruct market liquidity ... more
New investment project for water and sanitation services in Smolyan, Bulgaria

New investment project for water and sanitation services in Smolyan, Bulgaria

The project will modernise and extend municipal services for nearly 100 000 people in the Smolyan district in accordance with EU directives ... more
The first large-scale wastewater treatment plant for Skopje gets euro financing

The first large-scale wastewater treatment plant for Skopje gets euro financing

The EBRD is providing a loan of 58 million euro to finance the first large-scale wastewater treatment plant for Skopje. The financing will be complemented by 78 million euro package from the European Investment Bank (EIB) ... more