South-East European Industrial Market 3/2022

THE INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTS & SERVICES MAGAZINE FOR THE SOUTH-EAST EUROPEAN COUNTRIES SEPTEMBER ISSN 1312-0670 Visit the SEEIM web site: issue3/2022 Metal processing industry in Slovenia

south-east european INDUSTRIAL MARKET 2 South-East European Industrial Market is a bimonthly industrial products & services magazine for the South-East European countries - Bulgar ia, Croat ia, Greece, Northern Macedonia, Romania, Slovenia, Serbia, Montenegro, Turkey, Albania. It is distributed free of charge among the working specialists in the industrial sectors in the region, and the engineering, manufacturing and trade companies in South-Eastern Europe. Editorial Department Dilyana Yordanova - Lead Editor % (+359 2) 818 3823 Lyuben Georgiev % (+359 2) 818 3808 Pepa Petrunova % (+359 2) 818 3822 Marketing & Distribution Dept. Mirena Russeva - Head of Department % (+359 2) 818 3812 E-mail: Advertising & Communications Marieta Krasteva % (+359 2) 888 956 150 Petya Naydenova % (+359 2) 818 3810 Anna Nikolova % (+359 2) 818 3811 Gergana Nikolova % (+359 2) 888 595 928 Elena Dimitrova % (+359 2) 818 3815 ISSN 1312-0670 TLL Media Ltd. © All rights reserved.The artwork, layout design, the articles and all the graphical and text materials used - images, photos, texts, etc., are copyrighted and protected by the law. Unauthorized and unpermitted use is illegal and a copyright infringement. The Publisher shall not be held liable for the contents of the advertisements, advertising layouts and banners, video advertising publications, advertorials and company articles. Copyrights of all mentioned trademarks, registrated trademarkes, etc. belong to their owners.  IN THIS ISSUE: www . SEE - i ndus t r y . com Publishing House 104, Acad. Ivan Geshov Blvd., entr. A, office 9, 1612 Sofia, Bulgaria % (+359 2) 818 3838, Fax: (+359 2) 818 3800 E-mail: ® 4 To EtherCAT and Beyond. 7 In the future plastics will no longer be the problem but rather par t of the solution. Interview with Thomas Franken, Project Director Plastics & Rubber in Messe Duesseldorf. 8 We are transforming the traditional way of doing predictive maintenance in the industry. Interview with Faizan Patankar, CEO and co-founder of Amygda. 9 GNSS receivers. 12 Metal processing industry in Slovenia. 16 Food production in Turkey. 20 Solid waste management in Serbia. 22 par ts2clean 2022 to offer comprehensive suppor ting program. 22 33.BI-MU to showcase solutions for all production reqirements. 23 EBRD continues to work towards a sustainable future in Turkey.

south-east european INDUSTRIAL MARKET 3 PAID ARTICLE Endrich Bauelemente Vertriebs GmbH introduces the award winning E-IoT infrastructure on the International Plovdiv Technical Fair Zoltán Kiss, Export Director e-mail: Written by Zoltan Kiss, Export manager and Head of R&D - Endrich Bauelemente Vertriebs GmbH In the previous issue of the magazine we have been talking a lot about the multi-award winning IoT Eco-System of Endrich GmbH, the E-IoT platform, which actually supports our major offering to our partners described by or 2022 year slogan “We MAKE YOUR DEVICE SMART”. Smart features of devices support predictive maintenance, optimize energy consumption, and support remote monitoring. Our E-IOT eco-system helps to enter this industry by offering hardware and software service evaluation platform to developers of such IOT devices as well as offer ready solution to convert conventional into “smart” devices. In September 2022, have brought this concept to Bulgaria by exhibiting on the International Technical Fair in Plovdiv, as the next stopover of our international E-IoT RoadShow‘ 22. Endrich GmbH - a leading electronics component distributor and design-in house - has developed an online sensor network infrastructure, where each hardware components belong to manufacturers represented by the company. A series of technical writing have been published in South East European Industrial Market to give the readers a closer look at to Endrich’s IoT platform and ecosystem, offering a possible cooperation between IoT developers and the leading component distributor on the field of “smart devices”. We intended to talk to the Bulgarian professionals in order to see whether we can integrate our IoT services into national Bulgarian technical products, requiring predictive maintenance, being part of smart network or meeting requirements of Industry 4.0. We did not only show the concept on our Booth at the Plovdiv Show, but also intended to exhibit a few of the finished product derivates out of the concept, such as the Telemetry Module made for Air Purifiers (Grand Prix Award Winner of Industry Days ’22 Expo in Hungary), the brand new Wireless Smart Sensor Mesh Network (first exhibited in Embedded World’22 in Nurnberg and second in Plovdiv), the newest family member, the Smart City Box, designed for monitoring air quality of urban area. This latest product debuted in Plovdiv, this had been the first show where it was promoted to the audience. The E-IOT ecosystem is extremely popular in western Europe, the concept itself and the derived products have won by today several prizes, amongst others the 2022 German Innovation Award. We also felt necessary to weight it on the International Gold Medal and Diploma Competition of the Plovdiv International Technical Fair. A short summary of the products promoted E-IOT Board The root of the platform, a RISC-V based single board computer with sensors and narrowband (GSM) communication functions integrated. The board is similar to a well known Arduino or Raspberry Pi SBC, however due to the special functions on board acts as an independent IoT node. Telemetry Module for Air Purifiers This SBC has been derived from the E-IoT board and offers special telemetry functions to UVC air cleaners, to support predictive maintenance by offering remote supervision of operating parameters and air quality. With this board in fact any conventional device can be converted to “Smart” device by replacing the special external sensors developed for Air Purifiers to dedicated sensors for Your device’s important operational parameters. Gateway for local Mesh Sensor networks to go on live via GSM An external shield for the E-IoT board to offer a concentrator for MESH network of sensors operated on 868 MHz local wireless LAN. The board converts the E-IoT board to a gateway to the Internet. City Box A solar panel driven single board computer with integrated air quality measurement sensors, such are air particle sensor, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide, humidity and temperature sensors as well as the possibility to connect external wired and/or wireless sensors. The city box communicated to the Endrich Cloud via the Internet through 2G/ NarrowBand (NB-IoT or LTEM) GSM channel.

south-east european INDUSTRIAL MARKET 4 Over the last two decades, there has been a large change in the way industrial systems communicate. This move has seen companies move away from fieldbus-based systems towards communications systems that are based on Ethernet. The strong growth of Ethernet-based industrial communications is expected to continue at an accelerated pace, with the latest research by analyst Markets and Markets finding that the overall market for Industrial Ethernet projected to rise from USD 9,2 billion in 2020 to USD 13,7 billion by 2026, a CAGR of 7.3% over the period of the research. It is no real surprise that Industrial Ethernet has taken such a market share in that relatively short period of time. Although there has been improvements made to Fieldbus-based systems, they still have some limitations. They are ideal for simple control functionality, but with more manufacturers working towards the implementation of an Industry 4.0 strategy, these limitations become difficult to overcome. The most obvious limitation is speed, especially when it comes to applications that need very complex and precise control, such as robotics. To EtherCAT and Beyond Ian Saturley, Strategic Marketing Manager, USB & Networking Group - Microchip Technology An Ethernet-based implementation is an obvious al ternat ive. Ethernet easi ly has enough bandwidth to cope with the vast majority of industrial use cases, even for the most demanding Industry 4.0 applications. It is a well-understood standard that is cost-effective and used all over the world. It is flexible and can be used for many different applications, especially as older fieldbus branches can be easily and cheaply incorporated into the Ethernet backbone. For implementation and maintenance, there are no shortage of engineers who have worked with and understand Ethernet technology. Industry 4.0 requires a strong link between industrial operations and IT, so it makes sense to have communications systems that are based on the same standard. However, the Ethernet that is found in IT systems is not deterministic, and that is one of the most important requirements for control systems. This missing requirement prompted several manufacturers and organisations to set out to develop a standard based on Ethernet that would be suitable for industrial usage. The most popular of these new standards are Ethernet TSN, EtherNet/IP, PROFINET and EtherCAT. Since their initial development, each of these protocols and other smaller or proprietary systems have found their own geographical or technical niche. All protocols have their own advantages and disadvantages. Generally, they take the concept of Ethernet as it is found in IT and adapt it to provide real-time operation. One Industrial Ethernet implementation does things a bit differently - EtherCAT (Ethernet for Control Automation Technology) keeps the standard Ethernet physical layer and builds a completely new deterministic protocol on top. The protocol uses a host controller, which is the only device alFigure 1. Typical EtherCAT system showing the roles that Microchip products can take.

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south-east european INDUSTRIAL MARKET 6 lowed to create the EtherCAT frame. The frame is always the same length, and each device node on the network has an addressable area of the frame dedicated to it. As the frame travels around the network, each node picks up control data and drops off reply information in its allocated space as it passes, without delaying the frame any more than the hardware propagation delay and giving a maximum effective data rate close to the line speed of 100Mbit/s. In other Industrial Ethernet implementations, carrying out the frame check, performing a CRC check and going through the stack can take hundreds of microseconds. EtherCAT is designed achieve the full process in only 125 µs. That quicker speed makes the system far more responsive, which, in turn, makes the entire control application more efficient and safe. The EtherCAT device node is also much simpler than other Industrial Ethernet implementations, only requiring a stack code (SSC) running on a modest microcontroller, which also reduces system complexity and cost. However, the implementation of EtherCAT is not the easiest thing to achieve. The most difficult barrier for designers is meeting cycle time requirements. Many manufacturers, especially those who use motors, wish to implement control algorithms at 8000 cycles per second, which is a cycle time of 125 µs. Although EtherCAT systems should easily achieve this figure, getting it in practice has proven difficult and usually requires a lot of writing and optimising of software. It can also be expensive – an off-the-shelf DINrail EtherCAT controller to sit beside a motor controller can cost hundreds of dollars. However, a custom design can be achieved for almost ten times less. A New Solution Microchip has been involved in the EtherCAT market 2012. The company debuted its first EtherCAT device controller (ESC), the LAN9252, in 2015. That entry into the market proved a success, and also allowed the company to gather feedback about where the pain points were in the market. It found that users wanted an easier way to meet cycle time requirements and a range of features that would allow them to add value to their implementations and give them better insights into EtherCAT’s operation. The feedback led to Microchip developing its second generation of ESC solutions, which were launched in September 2020. The LAN9253 and LAN9254 devices are 3 port ESCs that feature dual integrated Ethernet PHYs with a full-duplex 100BASE-TX transceiver and 100Mbps operation. The most important enhancement the company made in the new ESCs was to tailor the design to allow designers to meet cycle time targets with very little software optimisation. The new devices also simplified the implementation of EtherCAT nodes by cutting down on the design time and BoM required. Normal EtherCAT implementations use an ESC, a microcontroller and an EEPROM, with the EEPROM hosting configuration for the ESC. Microchip developed a technique that effectively emulates the EEPROM. The ESC uses a function call to get instructions directly from the host microcontroller without affecting performance, making the physical EEPROM unnecessary. The new ICs were also designed with a feature that cuts down the amount of crystals required for timing. Many industrial designs use multi-axis controllers for applications such as robotics. These designs can require up to six different controller circuits to operate a multiaxis robot arm. Each of those circuits previously required their own crystal for timing. The new ICs included a method of accurately replicating the clocking system and jitter attenuator for the six circuits using a single crystal, eliminating the need for five additional crystals, and cutting the Figure 2. The LAN9255 Evaluation Board allows engineers to develop using an integrated Cortex M4F microcontroller with EtherCAT device controller. system cost further. The two devices also provide other features that ease the implementation and operation of EtherCAT systems. The EtherCAT protocol was designed without diagnostics at the physical layer, so users only knew about faults, such as degradation of the cable, when they started getting CRC errors and other problems. Microchip designed in the ability to monitor the condition of cables at any time, allowing users to see faults before they become a problem – a key tenet of Industry 4.0. The LAN9253 is housed in a QFN package, replicating the pin-out of the LAN9252’s package as much as possible to allow customers to take advantage of the improvements that the design offers with minimal redesign. The LAN9254 has 16 additional I/O pins that allow the ESC to operate as a simple controller without the need for a microcontroller. As the area of the frame that the device node uses and the propagation delay is known, bits in the ESC can be mapped to offsets in the frame and the 32 I/O lines to allow field equipment to be connected directly to the EtherCAT network. Many customers requested that we include a controller to provide an all in one ESC solution. This year the LAN9255 was launched which adds a Cortex-M4F microcontroller. The MCU has enough speed to take care of the EtherCAT requirements, while acting as an application processor for the control system. The processor’s floating-point unit assists with more complex algorithms, such as those required for motor control. Ethernet sockets with code support for SNMP version 3 were also added to allow designers more flexibility when linking the operational technology to IT systems. Microchip’s LAN9253 and LAN9254 made the implementation and maintenance of EtherCAT nodes much easier, less time consuming and lower cost by eliminating the need for some supporting components, easing the software optimisation process and adding the ability to analyse the network. The new LAN9255 IC takes that trend a step further by eliminating the need for an external host controller and providing developers with an EtherCAT node and field control solution in a single package. Using the MPLAB X Harmony Framework accelerates the time-tomarket further by allowing the software for both communication and control to be written and optimised in a single, easy-to-use user environment.

south-east european INDUSTRIAL MARKET 7 The world’s leading trade fair for the plastics and rubber industry K is back for its 70th jubilee. How will you celebrate it? K in Duesseldorf will take place again in 2022 in accordance with its regular three-year cycle. And yes, it is true, it is celebrating its 70th birthday this year! In 1952, no one could have imagined that it would develop into the world’s leading trade fair for the plastics and rubber industry. Before K 2022 even opens its doors, there is already an opportunity to get in the mood for the trade show’s anniversary. We are celebrating K with its own microsite, inviting you to delve into seven decades of K history and to smile and marvel at historical photos and stories. And if someone likes to share their own personal K story with us, anecdotes, encounters, funny or astonishing things, please feel free! This is possible any time via LinkedIn by using the hashtag #70YearsK. We are not yet revealing how the anniversary will be celebrated at the fair itself. But one thing is certain: we want to celebrate the plastics and rubber industry itself at K 2022! Messe Duesseldorf has prepared to give the stage to hot live discussions, best practice exchanges and future strategies. What will be the keynote themes at K 2022? K 2022 will focus on the three major guiding topics of the industry: Climate Protection, Circular Economy, Digitalization. The way these issues are consistently addressed at K impressively proves how committed the industry is to assuming responsibility and how plastics will in future no longer be the problem but rather part of the solution. Never in the history of plastics has the industry worked so consistently and cohesively towards joint, global solutions. K 2022 provides the only global platform for this exchange to network with each other and to address forward-looking topics and specifically tackle projects in face-to-face exchange. The K 2022 specials will focus on the three hot topics as well. First and foremost: the official special show with the title “Plastics Shape the Future” in Hall 6. This presentation is jointly organized by Plastics Europe Germany and Messe Duesseldorf. In panel discussions and lectures, industry experts will show how plastics can shape a sustainable future, which developments are already emerging today and which visions have a chance of being realized tomorrow. The “Science Campus” of K 2022 stands for the dialogue between the scientific community and business. Here exhibitors and visitors have the opportunity to get a condensed overview of scientific activities and findings in the plastics and rubber industry and exchange experiences between universities and companies. The “Circular Economy Forum” will be in the outdoor space between Halls 10 and 16 at In the future plastics will no longer be the problem but rather part of the solution Thomas Franken, Project Director Plastics & Rubber in Messe Duesseldorf, for South-East European Industrial Market K 2022. There, 13 member companies of the VDMA (German Engineering Federation) will make the circular economy tangible and showcase this topic in its entirety. What innovation and breakthrough must-see solutions are expected in the spotlight at K 2022 exhibition halls? Of course, we can’t say anything about individual innovations yet, because the innovations for K are still the best-kept secrets of our exhibitors at the moment. They are using K as a premiere platform and will only show off at the fair itself. But of course, all of them focus on innovations that contribute to the three hot topics. For example “Design for recycling” will surely be reflected in the exhibitors’ new solutions and products. It is alarming to see that many plastic products still cannot be recycled meaningfully, because material mixtures, a variety of plastic materials and additives used prevent re-use in a circular fashion. The solution for this problem is known: Design for recycling. To ensure efficient circular management plastic products have to already be “engineered” for re-use during the design process and the companies in the sector are working at full speed on this. New in 2022 is the “Start-up Zone”. For the first time, K offers newcomers specializing in the development of innovative products and solutions for plastics and rubber their own presentation area in Hall 8b. I am very excited about this and expect very creative, forward-looking ideas and solutions from the 11 participating start-up companies.

south-east european INDUSTRIAL MARKET 8 Amygda is a young company but has already gained valuable market experience. Would you please tell us more about your journey so far? Our journey so far has been rewarding and exciting. The business idea of Amygda came about when the company’s co-founder and I were still working at Rolls-Royce. We could see the proliferation of data in transport industries like aerospace and rail. We realized that it was a field that was going to grow and we felt that there were changes that could be done to the industry. So we took action and initiated those changes ourselves. At Amygda we utilise machine data to decipher why a machine is acting a certain way and how it is most likely to respond in different situations, thus helping in decision making for the maintenance teams behind these machines. We have come a long way with new customers and investors, external validation and also new team members. What are the features, advantages and key potential applications of your predictive analytics platform? How are state-of-the-art innovations like AI and machine learning transforming traditional industries? Current state-of-the-art technology includes time-based maintenance according to the number of miles covered by the asset, irrespective of the asset condition. Via our high-frequency analytics platform we processes existing sensor data from assets (temperature, notch, fuel, oil, vibration, etc.) using unsupervised learning to create data-driven patterns of breakdowns. Maintenance teams receive an alert and suggest actions as an output, enabling faster root cause analysis. Amygda is transforming the traditional way of doing predictive maintenance in the industry. Our AI technology can identify known and unknown faults ten times faster. Our models are autonomously learning customer behaviour, so the maintenance team needs minimum input into the process. Which are the highlights of the platform’s first practical implementations and what feedback do you get from your customers? We have been working with Boeing, Leonardo and some other companies. So far the feedback has been amazing. Through our customers we know that there is a need for our product in the market, we can help provide different levels of data-driven business models to improve customer experience and add value for the users, and also keep expanding our market to different countries. Our sales model includes working with established go-to-market partners who have a need for our solution and can shorten the sales cycle. The industrial AI sector is still maturing and most of the time customers rely on trusted networks and people, like us, to help them narrow the solutions. We are transforming the traditional way of doing predictive maintenance in the industry Faizan Patankar, CEO and co-founder of Amygda, for South-East European Industrial Market What challenges did you have to overcome so far? What place does Amygda’s technology hub in Sofia have in your further development strategy? Challenges are inevitable, and we’ve had our share of them. We started Amygda in the middle of a pandemic and we entered an industry where decisions take months, not days. We knew our clients would take time, and the pandemic lengthened that time, but the goal was to help the customers, not just ourselves. We are focusing on the change that we have the potential to bring to the industry. We had our first team offsite in Sofia earlier this year, in July. As a remote-first company, we are still virtual. Our plans to co-locate together in a physical office are for 2023, most likely in Sofia and Derby in the UK. Our readers would find interesting the concept of servitization and the way it applies to industry and manufacturing. The concept of servitization is deeply incorporated in our work. We see servitization as a business model to transform products into intelligent and connected solutions. Servitization means focusing on digital transformation by leveraging the data generated from intelligent assets. We enable companies to smoothly integrate servitization as part of their offering to the customer through data-driven solutions, be it in the aerospace, rail or any other industry. For transport and asset-intensive industries we are always happy to talk about reducing maintenance costs, optimising operations, and reducing carbon footprint of assets.

south-east european INDUSTRIAL MARKET 9 GNSS equipment expands into 3 different pieces, though depending on the exact model there can be some level of integration. The 3 pieces are the receivers, the antennas, and the supporting software. The receivers make up the bulk of the device and have the highest variation depending on their ability to process the incoming data. GNSS receivers can be categorized by their type in different ways, and under different criteria. Besides the professional-grade receivers (e.g. survey and precision), commercial Portable Navigation Devices (PND’s) are very common inside vehicles today, and smartphones appear more and more equipped with integrated GNSS receivers. These receivers are implemented in a wide variety of platforms, from ASIC, DSP or FPGA, to general purpose microprocessors. The choice of the target platform is often a trade-off of parameters such as receiver performance, manufacture and maintenance cost, expandability, power consumption, and autonomy. Multi-constellation With the emergence of multiple satellite navigation systems (both regional and global), multiconstellation receivers are becoming widely available. This has been encouraged at system design level by working towards interoperability and compatibility among all systems, allowing for seamless combination of the different signal GNSS receivers spectra and processing chains into a single, multi-constellation GNSS solution. This approach reflects on the four global GNSS receiver implementations: Galileo Receivers; GPS Receivers; GLONASS Receivers; BeiDou Receivers. Galileo sensor stations are equipped with high-performance, ultra-reliable receivers. The stations provide measurement data to the Galileo system central processing facilities for establishing system integrity and performing satellite orbit determination and time synchronisation. GPS receivers can be stand-alone, or may benefit from corrections or measurements provided by augmentation system or by receivers in the vicinities (DGPS). Moreover receivers might be generic all-purpose receivers or can be built specifically having the application in mind: navigation, accurate positioning or timing, surveying, etc. In addition to position and velocity, GPS receivers also provide time. An important amount of economic activities, such wireless telephone, electrical power grids or financial networks rely on precision timing for synchronization and operational efficiency. GPS enables the users to determine the time with a high precision without needing to use expensive atomic clocks. Comparing to GPS system, GLONASS use in civil/commercial applications is rare. One of the main differences between GPS and GLONASS is that the former uses Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) technique to separate the satellites while the latter uses Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) technique. The main impact at receiver level is that GLONASS receivers are in general more expensive since they require higher IF bandwidths and hence they need more complex hardware. The migration of GLONASS system towards CDMA techniques may reduce the cost at receiver level.

south-east european INDUSTRIAL MARKET 10 BeiDou (as GPS and Galileo) uses CDMA techniques allowing a simpler RF module (than for example GLONASS), since all signals in the same frequency band have a common carrier. Nevertheless, BeiDou supports a regional short message service, which allows the user to send information to the stations. This additional communication link adds complexity to the receiver, and therefore potentially higher costs. From the receiver perspective, multi-constellation brings a key added value on solution availability, especially in urban environments: with the increased number of constellations available, the number of satellites visible to the user is bound to increase. This allows several algorithm implementations to be further refined, and the final solution can be computed with higher accuracy and availability. Multi-frequency Several GNSS signals are allocated to different frequencies – for instance, the L1 and L2 bands. Whether in single or multi-constellation approaches, receivers can benefit from multi-frequency signal processing for removal of the frequency-dependent errors on the signals, hence improving receiver accuracy. The most important example is the correction for ionospheric delays, since these usually represent the main contributors to the overall measurement error. Multi-frequency receivers, however, bring forth a new challenge, since there is a need for increasing RF hardware sections. Typical antennas, front ends, and filtering/sampling circuits are centred on one of the desired frequencies, and in most cases the same amount of RF hardware is replicated for the other frequency (or frequencies) to process. For this fact, there are also trade-offs implied between cost, size, power conSEE NEWS Third edition of Rutronik’s Automotive Congress to be held in October The Rutronik Automotive Congress will take place on October 11 and 12, gathering international decision-makers from the automotive industry for the third time at the CongressCentrum Pforzheim. Representatives of OEMs, Tier 1, and electronic component manufacturers will highlight trends relating to digitalization and electrification in the automotive market. Among other things, the 3rd Rutronik Automotive Congress 2022 will feature: trendsetting speeches on developments towards electric powertrains as well as electronic solutions for authentication, connectivity, and encrypted communication; top-class presentations by ABU partners including ams OSRAM, Elmos or Infineon and automotive manufacturers and suppliers like Audi, BMW or ZF; new developments regarding applications in the areas of light and vision, onboard networks, power, MCU as well as automotive sensor technology and the required, futureoriented components. Canadian car parts manufacturer Liberty Spring opens factory in Romania Canadian car parts manufacturer Liberty Spring has opened a springs plant in western Romania – its first production unit in Europe. The factory, comprising of two production lines, is located in Giarmata, 13 km from the city of Timisoara, and was opened at the end of August. „This new factory allows us to be closer to major car manufacturers and Europe’s no. 1 suppliers,“ Liberty Spring CEO and President Mathieu Ouellet said. One out of every two cars manufactured today contains at least one part made in one of Liberty Spring’s factories, according to the company’s latest research. Headquartered in Montmagny, Quebec, Liberty Spring is specialized in the manufacture and assembly of springs intended for the automotive market. The company operates factories in Montmagny, Queretaro (Mexico), Suzhou (China) and now Giarmata (Romania), employing more than 700. Photo: Liberty Spring Photo: Rutronik sumption, performance, signal and band filtering, and analogue circuitry quality. Augmentation GNSS receivers can also benefit from corrections or measurements provided by the available augmentation systems to improve their accuracy and performance. As the name implies, such systems aim at providing augmentation information to the GNSS users, consisting of corrections and/or auxiliary measurements that increase precision and accuracy in the calculated solution. Examples of receivers that use satellite augmentation information include EGNOS and WAAS receivers. Differential Differential techniques enable improved receiver accuracy by providing the receiver with additional information, such as measurements from

south-east european INDUSTRIAL MARKET 11 other receivers in the vicinities, or corrections computed independently. Such external information is then used within a receiver in a differential way, e.g. improving the solution accuracy. Some of the most widely used differential techniques available in current receiver technology are: DGNSS – Differential GNSS; PPP – Precise Point Positioning; RTK – Real-Time Kinematics. Assistance The definition of assisted-GNSS (A-GNSS) gathers many different concepts, but can be split into two main categories. GNSS assistance information is used to improve acquisition speed: an assistance network – comprised of servers and information relays – transmits almanac and/or ephemeris data to the receiver, so that the initial search for satellites can be performed faster. This allows the receiver to start tracking visible satellites quicker, thus providing a navigation solution in less start-up time. Data processing and solution computation are performed in the server: in this case, the receiver can send measurements like visible satellites, pseudoranges or phase information to the servers, where the heavier computational load for generating an accurate solution is performed, and the results are sent back to receiver. The assistance information can be accessed by the receiver beforehand (e.g. via Internet), or received on request (usually through wireless communication). So, assisting information can be provided by different technologies, such as Wi-Fi, GPRS/UMTS, or the internet. Depending on the solution envisaged, this might have an impact at several levels, such as availability, continuity, and power consumption. As an example of assisted data, the International GNSS Service provides position, velocity and clock information regarding GPS satellites that GNSS receivers can use to improve accuracy. Assistance data is also used in indoor environments, where receivers struggle to get anything out of GNSS. These environments are very stringent in terms of GNSS signal reception, and the solutions often include integrating different sensors and technologies to use all available data to provide a navigation solution. Software receivers Besides the wide variety of hardware platforms and their evolution, the so-called “software receivers” have proliferated lately, thanks to their additional flexibility, reconfiguration capabilities, upgradeability and expandability. Since the algorithmic and signal processing tasks are performed in software, there is an added control and flexibility on the tasks performed. Also, future changes in algorithms or approaches are easier in a software approach. One identified drawback in a software implementation of a receiver, however, is the efficiency concerning the processing load, specifically its impact on a CPU power consumption in mobile platforms.

south-east european INDUSTRIAL MARKET 12 Slovenia’s metal processing and machinery industry today is technologically advanced and has come a long way of development after its beginning far back in the medieval centuries. The sector today is highly specialized and focused on high value-added niche products. The metal processing segment sector includes three main activity fields: metalworking, machinebuilding and transport means manufacturing. It represents one of the strongest sectors among the national manufacturing industries, with 34% of employees in the country. The industry generates 31% of export and 31% of income of all production enterprises in Slovenia. “Some of the specialized processed metals and alloys for the most demanding applications are being developed and produced in Slovenia. Tool making and machinery production is moving away from the manufacture of single machines and more towards the engineering of complete, fully automated production lines”, the country’s Business development agency SPIRIT informs. The metal processing industry, along with machinery production, is amidst Slovenia’s leadMetal processing industry in Slovenia ing exporting sectors and serves as a backbone to the automotive field – the country’s most important export sector. Narrow niche specialization comes together with flexible production processes complying with the highest international standards, the Business development agency reports. Facts and figures Among Slovenia’s advantages when it comes to the development of the metal processing industry and the investment opportunities in the sector, are: the high quality products and solutions at competitive prices; the compliance with most demanding standards; the skilled and innovative workforce and the long industrial tradition. In addition, the country’s geostrategic position and highly developed logistics, in combination with the opportunities for R&D and innovation, technological development in close cooperation with partners and the manufacture of tailor-made small series of products, contribute to the excellent current position of Slovenia on the global market of metal processed goods. In 2021 there were over 2700 companies operating in the sector with a total of nearly 56 000 employees. The annual revenue of the segment in 2021 amounted to EUR 10,1 billion. According to current research data (May, 2022) by the Statistical office of the Republic of Slovenia (SURS), the main product and item groups manufactured in the country, are: industrial knives, logging winches, crankshaft processing machines, premium grade super hardened

south-east european INDUSTRIAL MARKET 13 and resistant steels, lever arch mechanisms, etc. Important export markets are: Germany (accounting for 24% of the total exports), Italy (12%), Austria (10%), Croatia (9%) and Poland (4%). Main export products and items in 2022 include: steel and aluminum ingots and sheets, aluminum die cast products for the automotive industry, castings and alloys, metal fittings, metal tools, water turbines and pumps, truck lifts, HVAC systems, agricultural and forestry machinery, metal processing machinery, complete product lines for various industries, material processing equipment and industrial robots, SURS and SPIRIT Slovenia inform. In the machining and metalworking industry the number of companies is approximately 3350, and the number of employees – over 64 600. The revenues of this segment on an annual basis equals EUR 9,3 billion, current statistics show. Key export markets for this sector are Australia, Austria, Croatia, Czech Rep., France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Serbia, Spain, Switzerland, UK and USA, the Agency of the Republic of Slovenia for public records and services (AJPES), reports. The most important export products are: vehicles and auto parts; metal fittings and components; cast and fabricated metal elements; water turbines and pumps; various metal products; metal tools; truck lifts and HVAC systems. There are significant business opportunities for market development, investments and export expansion also in the following fields: metal structures and propulsion elements; metal matrix composites; aluminum alloys and products; sustainable and certified production processes; material processing machinery; agricultural and forestry machinery; turnkey complete production lines, as well as elements for industry 4.0 production. Sector development – challenges and opportunities Metal processing is one of the fastest growing sectors of industry in Slovenia. It is characterized by a high growth of sales and added value, the country’s Investment promotion agency claims. The value added per capita reached by the main enterprises in the sector is among the highest in the field on a global scale. The iron and steel manufacturing in Slovenia, which is a key pillar of the industry, is valued at EUR 880,7 million and is ranked 15th in Europe in 2022 (of 18 total EU countries). “Slovenia’s steelmakers are among the largest producers of stainless and special purpose steels in Europe. Their products are intended for the most demanding uses in aerospace, oil industry, and machine production. They include premium grade high temperature steels, super hardened steels and alloys, corrosion resistant steels stable in acidic or alkaline environments, or special electric steels used in the magnetic cores of transformers and electric motors”, SPIRIT informs. Besides high quality steels and aluminum in various forms, the sector also offers a wide array of metal products, from various castings for the automotive industry, to furniture fittings, office equipment, taps, hand tools, containers, kitchen sinks, and prefabricated metal buildings. Local companies are the leading manufacturers of industrial knives for most demanding applications. “The forged precision parts made in Slovenia are used by the top car manufacturers. Slovenian

south-east european INDUSTRIAL MARKET 14 made prefabricated metal buildings, metal facades and roofs are present all over the world. They are used in the buildings of major corporations like Coca Cola, DHL, Nestle, Airbus, and in London’s Heathrow airport”, the Business Development Agency also points out. The metal processing industry in Slovenia is currently marked by intensive research and development (R&D), innovation, flexibility, quality, and efficiency. The country’s leading aluminum producer is, for example, the world leader in low power usage during the electrolytic process and one of the three global leaders in electricity used per ton of produced aluminum, official reports state. “R&D is often carried out in close cooperation between companies and their customers. The companies’ labs also carry out precise testing and quality inspection procedures. The industry has adopted the highest quality standards for their operations and processes. A high level of standardization does not, however, limit the industry’s flexibility: many Slovenian suppliers in the metal industry are able to offer tailor made products closely matched to the needs of their customers”, latest business reports also say. Machinery and robotics of the future A strong metal processing and manufacturing industry is the foundation for well-developed machinery and tool making fields, experts say. Today the sector is thoroughly modern, but it is based on a longstanding tradition. Some of the steel mills in Slovenia have been continuously operating for over 400 years. Hand tools production is based on a centuries old tradition of blacksmiths in the Pohorje area. The manufacture of turbines started 170 years ago. A longstanding tradition is not without importance even for the most advanced modern industries, as expert skills, work attitudes, and passion for precision often pass from one generation to another, the Business development agency underlines. Slovenia’s companies develop and produce machinery for various purposes, including metal processing, the food and beverages industry, pharmacy, logistics, woodworking, forestry, and agricultural machinery. “The turbines made in Slovenia are used in hydroelectric power plants all over the world. Thermoplastic injection molding tools, die casting and tools for transforming sheet metal, developed by Slovenian companies are used by some of the leading global automotive companies. Slovenia’s companies are among the leaders in specialized forestry equipment like logging cranes and forestry winches especially”, SPIRIT further emphasizes. Many Slovenian companies offer machinery for the metal processing industry, which range from presses for sheet metal forming and powder materials, to metal cutting machines, special purpose machinery for surface treatment, industrial furnaces, and kilns. Other key product groups include industrial washing machines, various molds, welding tools, lifting and handling equipment, and precision machinery for wood processing. Nowadays the sector is focusing on future solutions. Within the framework of the “Strategic Research and Innovation Partnership MATerials as end PROducts” (SRIP MATPRO), enterprises are jointly developing new materials for use in complex products with high value added and a lot of potential for positioning within global value chains. These solutions include new recyclable materials as a step towards a carbon neutral, circular economy. Robotics is another key pillar of current Slovenian economy, strongly fuelled by the strong metal processing industry in the country. The development of robots there started more than four decades ago with joint efforts by industry and the country’s top scientific institutions. These include: the Institute Josef Stefan, the Faculty of Electrical Engineering at Ljubljana’s University, and the then formed Institute of robotics at the University of Maribor. “Slovenian engineers played a pioneering role in the development of robotized palletizing and automated warehouses. A few years ago, Japanese robot makers chose Slovenia as their European base for production and development. Some of the most advanced industrial ro-

south-east european INDUSTRIAL MARKET 15 bots thus came from Kocevje, a small town in southern Slovenia. Another Japanese owned company in Slovenia produces robotized welding machines. Many smaller companies develop elements and solutions for automatized production lines, including software and building blocks for IoT. Slovenian toolmakers are increasingly shifting their offerings from “simple” tool production to the engineering of complete, highly automated product lines, including technical equipment and systems for monitoring and visualization of the items being produced”, latest report information by SPIRIT informs. Overview of the branch There are many large-sized enterprises currently operation in different subfields of the metal processing, metal products and machinery manufacturing industry. Some of the leading companies in the branch include: Impol (producer of high-end finished and semi-finished aluminium products); Talum (primary aluminium and aluminium alloys); LTH Castings (complex, highquality high-pressure die-cast aluminium components); Cimos (casting of light metals); Unior (forging parts, hand tools, machine equipment); Palfinger (hydraulic lifting, loading and handling systems); Store Steel (steel manufacturer); GKN Driveline Slovenija (driveline components, edrive technologies, all-wheel drive systems); Arcont (accommodation units, containers) ; Ledinek Engineering (woodworking machines, complete lines and plants); MDM (stainless steel and aluminium products); Meltal IS (non-ferrous metals); Kovinoplastika Loz (building hardware, kitchen sinks, toolshop, components); Farmtech (tippers, push-off trailers, spreaders, slurry tankers, flatbed trailers); Brinox (complete turnkey solutions and equipment for the pharmaceutical, biopharmaceutical and food industries) and Livar (iron foundry for gray and nodular castings). The is a wide network of academy, industry and market development organizations, supporting the sector. Some of those are: the faculties of mechanical engineering with the universities of Ljubljana, Maribor and Novo mesto, the Faculty of natural sciences and engineering with the University of Ljubljana, the Slovenian tool and die development center TECOS, the Metal processing association, part of the Chamber of commerce and industry of Slovenia, the Tool makers cluster of Slovenia, the Slovenian foundry men society, the Institute of metals and technology and the National institute of chemistry.

south-east european INDUSTRIAL MARKET 16 Food production is a key segment of the Turkish economy. According to official statistics, almost 20% of the country’s GDP is provided by the food and beverage industry and the sector is preparing for further expansion. Turkey benefits from favorable geographical and climatic conditions, which ranks it among the first world’s agricultural countries in terms of production. Thanks to these opportunities, the food industry enjoys a healthy trade surplus and sustained economic growth. Many international firms therefore have chosen Turkey as a manufacturing and export hub. The industry, though, is still facing two major challenges – the dependence on food ingredients and the requirement for advanced processing equipment. Key characteristics The Investment office of the Presidency of the Republic of Turkey reports that the number of agricultural enterprises in the country is over 3 million. The country ranks 1st in Europe’s agricultural economy in recent years, and 10th in the global agricultural economy. The Increase of Turkey’s agricultural product exports for the 2002 – 2020 period amounts to the impressive 408%. The average annual growth rate of the Turkish agriculture sector in 2003 – 2020 is 2,5%. Moreover,?during the 2002 – 2018 period the country’s livestock, animal, and aquaculture product exports grew 7,3 times. Among the important advantages of the sector are the strong macroeconomic growth with Food production in Turkey increasing income per capita and a bourgeoning middle-class, the favorable demographics with a dynamic, young, and skilled labor force and the cost-competitive labor prices. Compared to Europe and the rest of the world, the labor costs in the sector are 70% – 80% lower. In addition to that in Turkey there is a combination of strong government support through incentives and a developed industrial and commercial infrastructure. The country is geographically well-placed to take advantage of trade opportunities in Europe, Middle East, and former Soviet countries. With a growing population of more than 81 million, Turkey is one of the largest markets in the region, The Investment office further informs. The government is said to invest heavily in irrigation projects and in improvements of the infrastructure. Today, Turkey has a large and sophisticated food and beverage manufacturing sector. The sector, which comprises of over 53 000 businesses, continues to grow in response to steady consumer demand for processed food products. There are more than 500 foreign funded enterprises currently operating in the country. The industry generates USD 360 billion of annual turnover and accounts for 7% of the total exports. USD 180 billion of the turnover are realized in retail trade. The sector offers a total of 320 000 jobs, and 77% of the sales of food products are a result of traditional store chains. The food and beverage sector contributes for 9% of the total economic growth of Turkey. The production of flour-based products, confectionary and chocolate, milk and dairy products, meat and sausage products, processed fruit and vegetables are among the leading subsectors. Currently Turkey ranks 1st in the world’s export of flour and bread. It is the 2nd world’s exporter of pasta and the 7th world’s exporter of biscuits. The manufacture of flour-based products accounts for 22% of the whole agri-food industry with 41,1 million tons annual production, and over 3 million tons being exported annually. In the confectionary and chocolate segment annual exports amount to USD 2,7 billion, and im-

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